Chapter Fifteen: Sampling – Paradox without Adequate Representation

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…a sampling paradox without adequate representation.

Why is the collection of samples without purpose if they don’t capture the variation that is present in the process?

 

Conceptual Pattern for Sampling

Sampling is a process for obtaining a small part, number, or quantity of something that has been taken or selected as a sample at random from a population. It is used to test hypotheses about the population. Sampling obtains representative data or observations from a group (lot, batch, population, or universe). Sampling involves an entire aggregation or relative magnitude of something with reference to a criterion. A sample is a typical example or specimen of a group, quality, or kind. Sampling involves the extent, size, or sum of countable or measurable discrete events, objects, or phenomenon, expressed as a numerical value that has a comparable aspect or property. A sample must meet the selection criteria for detailed examination and statistical measurement. (Pattern Engine – Sampling N=12 © 2014)

If sampling is understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of sampling is to obtain representative data from a process for assessing conformance, process behavior and predicting process behavior.

Second Principle: The prerequisite for a representative sample is a process that is predictable.

Fourth Principle: A standardized deviation establishes a statistically modified   numerical value that represents how much each individual value in a set of data varies from the central tendency value of the set.

Fourth Principle: A margin of error proclaims the absolute value of error that is acceptable to the analyst or the user of the data in a sampling scheme.

Fifth Principle: A degree of confidence or confidence interval declares a range in measurement values on either side of the central tendency that is to be expected in a sampling scheme.

Sixth Principle: If the variation of a process characteristic measurement is expressed in standard deviation units, the margin for error and the needed degree of confidence are known then a representative sample size can be known.

Key Conceptual Patterns

CONFORMITY

Conformity is compliance with a fixed standard, regulation, requirement or practice according to a particular set of rules. Conformity is a customary way of meeting requirements that requires a prescribed guide. Conformity involves a confirmed set of accepted standard operations that have been developed through experience and knowledge and authoritative principles. Conformity results in translating an idea into action that can be used as a basis for reasoning, conduct or action and may be accepted as true. (Pattern Engine – Conformity N=12 © 2014)

PROCESS

A process is a sustained phenomenon manifested by a series of actions directed toward a specific aim intended to achieve a result. It is a sequentially ordered set involving statements, facts or occurrences. A process is an observed occurrence known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning, that is impressive or extraordinary, involving similar or related things or events or ideas in which each successive member is related to the preceding. A process is created by examining, studying, or calculating something as a consequence of another action, condition, or event that solves a problem or explains how to solve a problem. (Pattern Engine – Process N=12 © 2014)

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