Chapter Seventeen: Targets – Centered Variation that Meets Customer Expectations

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…a target of centralized variation.

Why are process targets typically unrealistic when the process is not naturally centered and variation is not predictable within limits?



Conceptual Pattern for Target

A target is an attainable reference point toward which effort and action is directed. It is an orienting indicator that achieves a state by a series of actions. A target is a desirable achievement providing information for comparing measurements and advancing a principle involving earnest and conscientious activity intended to achieve a purpose. (Pattern Engine – Target N=12 © 2014)

If targets are understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of a target is to institute a measure of central tendency.

Second Principle: A target communicates the Voice of the Process, Voice of the Customer and the Voice of the Raw Materials.

Third Principle: Without an estimate of conformance, a process target cannot be effective.

Fourth Principle: A target cannot be determined without knowing the variation that is present at the process level, the customer level and the raw material level.

Fifth Principle: Performance assessment of targets must include error present in measurement.

Sixth Principle: A target can’t be arbitrary and must be built on sound research and knowledge.

Key Conceptual Patterns


Performance is accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards while using knowledge, as opposed to just possessing it, in a manner that is efficient and fulfills an intended purpose. It is a psychological result and level of quality resulting in the skillful avoidance of waste. Performance is a result of perception, learning and reasoning that germinates from the combination of data, information, experience, and individual interpretation. It results in awareness or understanding of a circumstance or fact, gained through association. Performance is that which is accepted as the norm or by which actual attainments are judged. Performance is a universally or widely accepted, agreed upon, or established means of determining what something should be as a basis for comparison, a reference point against other things can be evaluated. Performance involves utilizing the minimum use of resources, time, and effort while achieving a desired result. (Pattern Engine – Performance N=12 © 2014)


Error is inadvertent incorrectness that varies between the true value of a mathematical quantity and a calculated or measured value or deviates from a model, norm, specification, or standard that is not due to a lack of knowledge. It is a nonconforming and inevitable change in rate or magnitude. Error is the output or result of a process that deviates from a norm or standard. Error is a change in the observed value from what is usual, accepted, expected or planned. Error affects the values of a data set when compared with a measure of central tendency such as the mean, median, or mode and may impact fact, truth standards or rules. (Pattern Engine – Error N=12 © 2014)

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