Chapter Twenty: Algorithms – Effective and Efficient Use of Metrics and Indicators

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…an effective procedure for creating information from data.

Why is an algorithm a logical sequence of steps for solving a problem or carrying out a procedure and may contain embedded experience, expertise and knowledge?

 

Conceptual Pattern for Algorithm

An algorithm is a procedure that details a sequence of rules or sets of rules performed to solve a problem. It is a serial arranged method to resolve a state of difficulty or puzzle. An algorithm addresses things, actions, or events arranged or happening in a specific order or linear arrangement having a specific connection as a recurrent pattern of actions intended to achieve a result. An algorithm is a fixed step-by-step sequence of activities that must be followed in the same order to correctly perform a task raised as a question for consideration or solution.(Pattern Engine – Algorithm N=12 © 2014)

If algorithms are understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle:  The purpose of an algorithm is the effective and efficient transformation of data.

Second Principle: An algorithm is a finite effective procedure, written in a fixed symbolic vocabulary, governed by precise instructions, moving in discrete steps and sooner or later comes to an end. 1

Third Principle: The actions carried out by an algorithm must be rigorously specified for each case. 2

Fourth Principle: An algorithm must arrive at a problem solution after a finite number of steps. 2

Fifth Principle: Inputs may be defined as quantities which are given to the algorithm initially, before it its executed, and the outputs as quantities which     have a specified relation to the inputs and which are delivered at the completion of its execution. 2

Sixth Principle: An algorithm has five basic properties: boundedness, it stops; correctness, it finds the right answer to a problem; predictability, it always does the same thing if given the same input; finiteness, it can be described in a finite number of steps; definiteness, each step has a well defined meaning. 3

Key Conceptual Patterns

PROBLEM

A problem is a state of difficulty or puzzle raised as a question for consideration or solution. It is a condition of something difficult to resolve requiring a correct answer. A problem is something requiring a solution but is difficult or impossible to resolve without successful action in respect to its main attributes.(Pattern Engine – Problem N=12 © 2014)

SOLUTION

A solution is a method that results in successfully dealing with difficulty and solves a problem or explains how to solve a problem or provides the answer to a puzzle or question. It is a way of doing something with requested information regarding a state of difficulty. A solution is a body of systematic techniques used by a particular scientific discipline according to a plan that is made to reply to a question or request or criticism or accusation and perceived as a gap between the existing state and a desired state raised for consideration.(Pattern Engine – Solution N=12 © 2014)

Next Post: Homeostasis – Achieving equilibrium with cybernetics.

Davis Berlinski: The Advent of the Algorithm, 2000.

2. Lydia Kronsjo: Algorithms: Their Complexity and Efficiency, 1987

3.  Gregory Rawlins: Compared to What; An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, 1992.

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Chapter Ten: Thinking – Creating Meaning and Finding Patterns

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS… thinking that creates meaningful patterns.

Why think with the objective of forming a pattern and utilize data, facts and experiences to make inferences and judgments based on concepts and theories to answer a question or solve a problem?

 

Conceptual Pattern for Thinking

Thinking is the process of using the mind to reason rationally. Thinking is a sequenced process using logic to draw conclusions based on a premise or known facts that generate thoughts, feelings, ideas, and perceptions. Thinking stores knowledge and memories to promote understanding and offer directions. Thinking generates a result and draws conclusions from interdependent and linked activities that are directed toward a specific action. (Pattern Engine – Thinking N=12 © 2013)

If Thinking is understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle:  The purpose of thinking is to collect information and to make the best use of it.[1]

Second Principle: Because of the way the mind works to create fixed concept patterns we cannot make the best use of new information unless we have some means of restructuring the old patterns and bring them up-to-date.[2]

Third Principle:  We think for a purpose, within a point-of-view, based on assumptions, leading to implications and consequences.[3]

Fourth Principle: Whenever we think; we use data, facts and experiences to make inferences and judgments based on concepts and theories to answer a question or solve a problem.[4]

Fifth Principle: Intellectual standards that must be considered for thinking are: clarity, relevance, logicalness, accuracy, depth, significance, precision, breadth, and fairness.[5]

Sixth Principle: The key to thinking creatively and intelligently is to connect two or more ideas, relate seemingly different ideas to things, explore the commonalities, subject the ideas, things and connections to analysis, discover or invent something new based the analysis, connections  and explorations, apply the discovery or invention to new contexts.[6]

Key Concept Patterns

INFORMATION

Information is a collection facts and data acquired through study, experience and instruction that culminates with knowledge. It is accumulated knowledge that results in awareness and possession of verified data. Information results from active involvement in an activity from learning and instruction or exposure to events or people over a period of time. Information leads to an increase in knowledge or skill that germinates from a combination of data, facts, ideas, truths, principles, experience and individual interpretation that can be shown to be true, to exist, or to have happened. (Pattern Engine, – Information N=12 © 2013)

PATTERN

A pattern is a general concept formed by extracting common features from specific examples. Patterns are distinct and unifying ideas that are simplified versions of something complex. They are used in analyzing and solving problems, making predictions or making a comparison that is perceived as an entity. A pattern is a recurrent idea expanded in a discourse due to a special set of circumstances. They are considered as a whole, belong together, referred to by name and serve as a master from which other similar things can be made, copied, or used as the basis for a related idea, process, or system. (Pattern Engine, – Pattern N=12 © 2013)

THE FOLLOWING CONCEPTS WILL BE EXPANDED TO CONEPTUAL PATTERNS IN THE BOOK.

[table id=7 /]


[1] Edward de Bono, Lateral Thinking, 1970

[2] Edward de Bono, Lateral Thinking, 1970

[3] Richard W. Paul and Linda Elder,  Critical Thinking, 2002

[4] Richard W. Paul and Linda Elder,  Critical Thinking, 2002

[5] Richard W. Paul and Linda Elder,  Critical Thinking, 2002

[6] Todd Siler, Thinking Like a Genius, 1996

Remember – We are building a theory about the meaning of quality

Next Post – Chapter Eleven: Curriculum – Shared Paradigms

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Chapter Twelve: Metrics – The Handle on the Door to World Class Quality

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…a metric for an ideal state

Why learn that the metrics of an ideal state are closely related to variation, targets, performance and control?

 

 

Conceptual Pattern for Metric

A metric is a standard system of related measurement statistics by which efficiency, performance, progress, or quality of a plan, process, or product can be assessed and quantified. A metric is an assigned piece of information based on a system of measurement. Metrics are numerical representations of any measurable characteristic of some subjective aspect (attribute, property) according to a rule or arbitrary scale, e.g. a mean or standard deviation, used to describe a sample or population made meaningful by quantifying into specific units. (Pattern Engine – Metric  N=12 © 2014)

If metrics are understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of a metric is to provide measurements for the management, monitoring and improvement of activities and processes.

Second Principle: A measured value from an activity or process can be considered to be in an ideal state only by satisfying four conditions: inherent stability over time, the process is operated with the goal of consistency and stability, the process average (target) is set at the proper level, the natural process spread must be less than the specified tolerance for the measurement characteristic value.1

Third Principle: A measurement value that is in the ideal state is predictable and is producing one-hundred percent conforming product. 1

Fourth Principle: Conformity will be a consequence of natural process limits which fall within specification limits.1

Fifth Principle: Metrics need to have targets based on research.2

Sixth Principle Multiple metrics can be combined into several overall indices of    performance.2

 Key Conceptual Patterns

IDEAL

An ideal is an example and model of standardized excellence. It is a representative member or example offered as a basis for comparison. An ideal is a typical version of a concept, phenomenon, relationship, structure, system, or an aspect of the real world that deserves to be imitated as a pattern. It is typical by virtue of having features of the thing it represents and is universally or widely accepted, agreed upon, or established means of determining what something should be and is accepted as the norm or by which actual attainments are judged. (Pattern Engine – Ideal N=12 © 2014)

CONFORMITY

Conformity is compliance with a fixed standard, regulation, requirement or practice according to a particular set of rules. Conformity is a prescribed guide establishing a customary way of meeting requirements. Conformity is a confirmed set of accepted standard operations especially those that have been developed through experience and knowledge and authoritative principles resulting in translating ideas into into action and are accepted as true and can be used as a basis for reasoning, conduct or action. (Pattern Engine – Conformity N=12 © 2014)

Nest Post: – Indicators – Harbingers of needed change.

  1. Donald Wheeler, Advanced Topics in Statistical Process Control, 1995
  2. Mark Graham Brown, Keeping Score, 1996
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Chapter Thirteen: Indicators – Harbingers of Needed Change—or Not

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…an indicator of needed change.

Why learn that indicators are simple algorithms that combine and then process metrics that may not be related but when used together provide a switch for needed change.

 

Conceptual Pattern for Indicator

An indicator is a measurable variable and signal for attracting attention to something observed or calculated and shows the presence or state of a condition,  trend, or representation of an associated (but non-measured or non-measurable) factor or quantity. It is a message based on an assumption or provision that is an incitement to action. An indicator encodes an agreed upon message that is understood as the occasion for concerted action. A indicator rests upon the validity or effect for something else to happen and is a statement or declaration setting forth particulars or facts regarding something real or alleged, especially one meant to induce a response and expressed by a term, character, or symbol. (Pattern Engine – Indicator N=12 © 2014)

If indicators are understood then the meaning of quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of an indicator is to provide the basis for change.

Second Principle: The mean, median and mode are indicators of central tendency and must approximate the target for measured process characteristics.

Third Principle: Variance and standard deviation values are indicators of spread or dispersion in data about the central tendency.

Fourth Principle: Standard error is an indicator of the average deviation between a measurement and the average of many repeated measurements of the same thing. 1

Fifth Principle: Test-Retest Error is an indicator of variation that exists in duplicate measurements of any specific indicator. 1

Sixth Principle: The Discrimination Ratio is an indicator that quantifies the relative usefulness of a measurement process for a specific characteristic and may be used to establish priorities with regard to improvement efforts. 1

Key Conceptual Patterns

CHANGE

A change is a process and event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another and by which things become different by varying from a routine or pattern. Change is the occurrence of a difference in a sustained phenomenon. Change is a series of actions directed toward a specific aim intended to achieve a result. that happens due to a special set of circumstances and is particularly significant between two or more things that depart from expectations and vary from a norm or standard. (Pattern Engine – Change N=12 © 2014)     

CHARACTERISTIC

A characteristic is any measurable property or feature that helps to distinguish an item, person, phenomenon, etc., usually divided into three categories: (1) physical, (2) functional, and (3) operational. A characteristic is an abstract measurable construct belonging to an entity a, group or set of things. A characteristic is peculiar to a whole class whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished, set apart from similar items or offered as a special attraction that share common attributes marking divisions or coordination’s in a conceptual scheme. (Pattern Engine – Characteristic N=12 © 2014)

Next Post – Variation – A Blessing or a Curse

1 Donald J. Wheeler and Richard W. Lyday, EMP, Evaluating the Measurement Process, 1989

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Chapter Fourteen: Variation – A Blessing or a Curse

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…variation that affects predictability.

Why does quality become unpredictable and frustrating for both provider and user when variation becomes excessive?

Conceptual Pattern for Variation

VARIATION

Variation is the rate or magnitude of inevitable change in the output or result of a process that deviates from a norm or standard. It is a process and event that is a numerical property or datum. Variation occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another and by which things become different by varying from a routine or pattern of relative size and extent. Variation may be assigned to the ratio of two quantities such that it can be compared to others numerically. Variation can be represented numerically as an average or average range as measured across a large group and may be a standard, model or pattern that is considered typical. (Pattern Engine – Variation N=12 © 2014)

If the meaning of variation is understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

Chapter Fourteen: Variation – A Blessing or a Curse

First Principle: The purpose of variation is to reflect the essence of nature and the creations of man.

Second Principle: Every data set contains the noise of routine variation, some data sets may contain signals, therefore; before you can detect a signal within any given data set, you must first filter out the noise .1

Third Principle: No data have meaning apart from their context .1

Fourth Principle: Appropriate, statistically derived, time series charts, are the simplest way to filter out noise, detect signals and put data in context.1

Fifth Principle: The purpose of analysis of variation is to provide needed insight.1

Sixth Principle: The best analysis is the simplest analysis which provides insight.1

Key Conceptual Patterns

CONTEXT

Context is the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event expressed as words, phrases, or passages that come before and after a particular word or passage in a piece of writing and help to explain and interpret its full meaning. It is a message explaining a distinct occurrence. Context establishes and makes clear significance of something that is intended, expressed in words that captures value, effectiveness and significance and may not be immediately obvious. Context follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon at a given time. (Pattern Engine – Context N=12 © 2014)

INSIGHT

Insight is the power of the mind to achieve a clear or deep perception of knowledge in the form of understanding, or deduction to grasp essential meaning or truth. It is a process of reasoning to identify facts. Insight uses the senses to acquire information about the surrounding environment or situation to understand and make good judgments about something resulting in the basic component in the formation of a concept. Insight has been verified and conforms to an original or standard for drawing conclusions by reasoning, esp. from given information, stated premises, or general principles and transcends from the general to the specific or cause to effect. (Pattern Engine – Insight N=12 © 2014)

Nest Post: Sampling, a paradox without adequate representation.

1 Donald J. Wheeler, Understanding Variation – The Key to Managing Chaos, 2000.

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Chapter Fifteen: Sampling – Paradox without Adequate Representation

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…a sampling paradox without adequate representation.

Why is the collection of samples without purpose if they don’t capture the variation that is present in the process?

 

Conceptual Pattern for Sampling

Sampling is a process for obtaining a small part, number, or quantity of something that has been taken or selected as a sample at random from a population. It is used to test hypotheses about the population. Sampling obtains representative data or observations from a group (lot, batch, population, or universe). Sampling involves an entire aggregation or relative magnitude of something with reference to a criterion. A sample is a typical example or specimen of a group, quality, or kind. Sampling involves the extent, size, or sum of countable or measurable discrete events, objects, or phenomenon, expressed as a numerical value that has a comparable aspect or property. A sample must meet the selection criteria for detailed examination and statistical measurement. (Pattern Engine – Sampling N=12 © 2014)

If sampling is understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of sampling is to obtain representative data from a process for assessing conformance, process behavior and predicting process behavior.

Second Principle: The prerequisite for a representative sample is a process that is predictable.

Fourth Principle: A standardized deviation establishes a statistically modified   numerical value that represents how much each individual value in a set of data varies from the central tendency value of the set.

Fourth Principle: A margin of error proclaims the absolute value of error that is acceptable to the analyst or the user of the data in a sampling scheme.

Fifth Principle: A degree of confidence or confidence interval declares a range in measurement values on either side of the central tendency that is to be expected in a sampling scheme.

Sixth Principle: If the variation of a process characteristic measurement is expressed in standard deviation units, the margin for error and the needed degree of confidence are known then a representative sample size can be known.

Key Conceptual Patterns

CONFORMITY

Conformity is compliance with a fixed standard, regulation, requirement or practice according to a particular set of rules. Conformity is a customary way of meeting requirements that requires a prescribed guide. Conformity involves a confirmed set of accepted standard operations that have been developed through experience and knowledge and authoritative principles. Conformity results in translating an idea into action that can be used as a basis for reasoning, conduct or action and may be accepted as true. (Pattern Engine – Conformity N=12 © 2014)

PROCESS

A process is a sustained phenomenon manifested by a series of actions directed toward a specific aim intended to achieve a result. It is a sequentially ordered set involving statements, facts or occurrences. A process is an observed occurrence known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning, that is impressive or extraordinary, involving similar or related things or events or ideas in which each successive member is related to the preceding. A process is created by examining, studying, or calculating something as a consequence of another action, condition, or event that solves a problem or explains how to solve a problem. (Pattern Engine – Process N=12 © 2014)

Nest Post: Control –  Essential for making informed decisions

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Chapter Seventeen: Targets – Centered Variation that Meets Customer Expectations

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…a target of centralized variation.

Why are process targets typically unrealistic when the process is not naturally centered and variation is not predictable within limits?

 

 

Conceptual Pattern for Target

A target is an attainable reference point toward which effort and action is directed. It is an orienting indicator that achieves a state by a series of actions. A target is a desirable achievement providing information for comparing measurements and advancing a principle involving earnest and conscientious activity intended to achieve a purpose. (Pattern Engine – Target N=12 © 2014)

If targets are understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of a target is to institute a measure of central tendency.

Second Principle: A target communicates the Voice of the Process, Voice of the Customer and the Voice of the Raw Materials.

Third Principle: Without an estimate of conformance, a process target cannot be effective.

Fourth Principle: A target cannot be determined without knowing the variation that is present at the process level, the customer level and the raw material level.

Fifth Principle: Performance assessment of targets must include error present in measurement.

Sixth Principle: A target can’t be arbitrary and must be built on sound research and knowledge.

Key Conceptual Patterns

PERFORMANCE

Performance is accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards while using knowledge, as opposed to just possessing it, in a manner that is efficient and fulfills an intended purpose. It is a psychological result and level of quality resulting in the skillful avoidance of waste. Performance is a result of perception, learning and reasoning that germinates from the combination of data, information, experience, and individual interpretation. It results in awareness or understanding of a circumstance or fact, gained through association. Performance is that which is accepted as the norm or by which actual attainments are judged. Performance is a universally or widely accepted, agreed upon, or established means of determining what something should be as a basis for comparison, a reference point against other things can be evaluated. Performance involves utilizing the minimum use of resources, time, and effort while achieving a desired result. (Pattern Engine – Performance N=12 © 2014)

ERROR

Error is inadvertent incorrectness that varies between the true value of a mathematical quantity and a calculated or measured value or deviates from a model, norm, specification, or standard that is not due to a lack of knowledge. It is a nonconforming and inevitable change in rate or magnitude. Error is the output or result of a process that deviates from a norm or standard. Error is a change in the observed value from what is usual, accepted, expected or planned. Error affects the values of a data set when compared with a measure of central tendency such as the mean, median, or mode and may impact fact, truth standards or rules. (Pattern Engine – Error N=12 © 2014)

Next Post: Waste- Knowledge Without Know -How

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Creating Conceptual Patterns – Proteins

LOGO FINALQuality IS…a pattern of allied concepts.

Why seek meaning in conceptual fields of knowledge and those allied concepts, principles and paradigms that describe and control them and then connect them with a theory?

______________________________________________

When I was an undergraduate and there was a need for a definition recognized as being the most authoritative and of the highest standard, we simply went to the huge dictionary that was available in the library. The volume was placed on its own stand because it was a foot thick and weighed about twenty pounds. Today we don’t have to leave the comfort or convenience of our home office, laptops, smart phone, or iPad to find a definition.  Research is being conducted at the local coffee shop with gusto!  However, the sheer volume of information begs for synthesis. This book offers a solution.

In this digital age and the advent of the internet, online dictionaries are plentiful. On one website more than fifty dictionaries are listed that define the word PURPOSE. Let us take a look at a conventional definition from a conventional dictionary for the abstract concept noun “purpose” and make a comparison. The conventional definition of “purpose” is “something set up as an object or end to be attained,” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 11thedition. Webster’s definition is a string of words.

Now let us compare a pattern for the same noun that has been developed with methods presented in the book.

Purpose is a rational stated motive for an expected state that explains or justifies why something happened that was caused by some previous phenomenon. Purpose represents a likely final state, achievement or result and is associated with the process of logical thinking as a consequence of another action, condition, or event that solves a problem or explains how to solve a problem. Purpose is the reason for which something exists, or for which it has been done or made, and is manifested as an anticipated outcome that is intended or guides planned actions to achieve a desired result.

This pattern is the result of the synthesis of twelve definitions from six different dictionaries—the output of the pattern engine—and is equivalent to a protein.   The pattern engine will be introduced in Chapter Seven. Unlike the conventional definition, a pattern is expressed in complete sentences, and contains related or allied concepts that are further defined and integrated into the pattern with little circularity. Three of the allied concepts in our example are reason, outcome, and result.

We will look at pattern characteristics in my next post.

 

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The Ingredients of Theory

LOGO FINALQuality IS…a recipe for connecting patterns.

Why seek criteria that will lead to a coherent quality theory with explanatory power?

 ______________________________________

 

Now that we are aware of the necessity to be prepared prior to developing a theory let us move on to the ingredients.

The ingredients can be gleaned from Chaftez, Dubin, Jaccard and Jacoby, Whetten and Mintzberg. The ingredients are: ( I have added purpose)

  • Purpose – Why
  • Assumptions – Why
  • Concepts – What
  • Concept Definitions – What
  • Patterns – What
  • Relationships – How
  • Propositions – Why

Purpose: The purpose of a theory is a rational stated motive for an expected state.  A theories purpose explains or justifies why something happened that was caused by some previous phenomenon. Purpose represents a likely final state, achievement or result and is associated with the process of logical thinking as a consequence of another action, condition, or event that solves a problem or explains how to solve a problem. Purpose is the reason for which something exists, or for which it has been done or made, and is manifested as an anticipated outcome that is intended or guides planned actions to achieve a desired result.  (Pattern Engine – Purpose n=12  ©2013)

Assumptions:  Assumptions are statements accepted as known and, not subject to direct verification and help explain some aspect of reality.  Assumptions are the theoretical glue that welds the theory together and constitutes the “Why?” aspect.  My assumptions are principles.

Concepts: Basic research is characterized as research that is not directly focused on pressing real-world problems, tends to rely on concepts that are relatively broad in scope, and produce findings with the intent of contributing to and extending our basic understanding of the phenomenon in question – QUALITY. Concepts provide the content and building blocks of theory that consist of words that are relatively high in level of abstractness. Understanding is knowledge about the interaction of concepts in a system. Theories comprise a system of interrelated concepts and accordingly are a set of statements about relationship(s) between two or more concepts or constructs. Higher order concepts are called constructs because they refer to instances that are synthesized from concepts at lower levels of abstraction and hence require precise definition. Theories consist of concepts whose definitions are often built upon one another and thus comprise a system of interrelated concepts. The ConPriDigm is a construct.

Concept Definitions: Concepts play a critical role in theories and careful attention must be paid to their development and precise definition; solid edifice cannot arise from weak, faulty or carelessly put together building blocks. Probably the best means available to avoid a major problem often encountered in definitions is to employ the age old form develop by Aristotle.  An Aristotelian definition consists of two parts. The first part, called the genius proximum tells what the phenomenon in question shares with a larger class of phenomena.  The second part, genus specifica, tells what is peculiar to phenomena in question.

Conceptual Patterns: The development of conceptual patterns will be my contribution to the final theory presented in this book. I have developed a Pattern Engine based on Aristotelian concept definitions and the decomposition and reconstruction of principles.

Relationships:  Answering the question “why?” involves moving to deeper levels of understanding by generating ideas about new explanatory constructs and the relationships between them, with the answers to such questions representing explanation. The conceptual realm entails the development of a conceptual system consisting of concepts, constructs and their relationships that can be communicated unambiguously to others. Relationships also help to answer the question ‘how?”.  How are the factors (variables, constructs, concepts) related? This step adds conceptualization by explicitly delineating patterns. How is often put in the form of a theoretical statement and is graphically represented. When I (Mintzberg) think about it (theory) I see explanation along a continuum, from lists (categories), to topologies (comprehensive lists), to impressions of relationships among factors (not necessarily “variables”: that sounds too refined for many of the factors I work with), to causations between and patterns among these relationships, to fully explanatory models (which interweave all the factors in question).

Propositions:  Propositions are the substance of theories. Explanation, the reason for all theories, is conveyed through a series of statements called propositions. Propositions are truth statements that can be used for a theory that has its concepts, laws of interaction among the concepts, boundaries, and system states specified. The criterion of the system of logic by which the theorist thinks makes all the propositions about the theory he or she builds true. Propositions link concepts in ways that result in something testable. However, only hypotheses require measures.

This post will conclude our adventure that seeks to answer the question “What is Theory?”.  Needless to say, theory provides the methodology to express the DNA and meaning of Quality.

In the next chapter we will explore the concept of a Concept.  Defining concepts accurately and objectively is critical for developing a theory with explanatory power.

 

Flashback in Theory Chapter

The Mind or Concept Map for Chapter Two

THEORY CMAP

 

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