Chapter Twenty: Algorithms – Effective and Efficient Use of Metrics and Indicators

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…an effective procedure for creating information from data.

Why is an algorithm a logical sequence of steps for solving a problem or carrying out a procedure and may contain embedded experience, expertise and knowledge?

 

Conceptual Pattern for Algorithm

An algorithm is a procedure that details a sequence of rules or sets of rules performed to solve a problem. It is a serial arranged method to resolve a state of difficulty or puzzle. An algorithm addresses things, actions, or events arranged or happening in a specific order or linear arrangement having a specific connection as a recurrent pattern of actions intended to achieve a result. An algorithm is a fixed step-by-step sequence of activities that must be followed in the same order to correctly perform a task raised as a question for consideration or solution.(Pattern Engine – Algorithm N=12 © 2014)

If algorithms are understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle:  The purpose of an algorithm is the effective and efficient transformation of data.

Second Principle: An algorithm is a finite effective procedure, written in a fixed symbolic vocabulary, governed by precise instructions, moving in discrete steps and sooner or later comes to an end. 1

Third Principle: The actions carried out by an algorithm must be rigorously specified for each case. 2

Fourth Principle: An algorithm must arrive at a problem solution after a finite number of steps. 2

Fifth Principle: Inputs may be defined as quantities which are given to the algorithm initially, before it its executed, and the outputs as quantities which     have a specified relation to the inputs and which are delivered at the completion of its execution. 2

Sixth Principle: An algorithm has five basic properties: boundedness, it stops; correctness, it finds the right answer to a problem; predictability, it always does the same thing if given the same input; finiteness, it can be described in a finite number of steps; definiteness, each step has a well defined meaning. 3

Key Conceptual Patterns

PROBLEM

A problem is a state of difficulty or puzzle raised as a question for consideration or solution. It is a condition of something difficult to resolve requiring a correct answer. A problem is something requiring a solution but is difficult or impossible to resolve without successful action in respect to its main attributes.(Pattern Engine – Problem N=12 © 2014)

SOLUTION

A solution is a method that results in successfully dealing with difficulty and solves a problem or explains how to solve a problem or provides the answer to a puzzle or question. It is a way of doing something with requested information regarding a state of difficulty. A solution is a body of systematic techniques used by a particular scientific discipline according to a plan that is made to reply to a question or request or criticism or accusation and perceived as a gap between the existing state and a desired state raised for consideration.(Pattern Engine – Solution N=12 © 2014)

Next Post: Homeostasis – Achieving equilibrium with cybernetics.

Davis Berlinski: The Advent of the Algorithm, 2000.

2. Lydia Kronsjo: Algorithms: Their Complexity and Efficiency, 1987

3.  Gregory Rawlins: Compared to What; An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, 1992.

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Chapter Nineteen: Capability – The Indicator of Quality Performance or Not

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…conformance to requirements, but is not free.

Why is poor process capability equivalent to Russian roulette when it comes to customer satisfaction?

 

 

Conceptual Pattern for Capability

Capability is the total range of inherent variations in a stable process that is susceptible to a particular treatment expressed as potential ability. It is a sustained phenomenon resulting in an action to do something well. Capability is a series of actions directed toward a specific aim intended to achieve a result manifested in an effective way when measured against a standard that favors steady progress and typical behavior while accomplishing a task well with a particular amount of success and results in a particular way something is handled or managed. (Pattern Engine – Capability N=12 © 2014)

If capability is understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of process capability is to demonstrate compliance with customer needs.

Second Principle: If a process is predictable and stable then its capability will be predictable. 1

Third Principle: Once the location of a process output has been described and the dispersion of the process output has been measured it is possible to make useful         comparisons between the Voice of the Process and the Voice of the Customer. 1

Fourth Principle: Capability can be expressed in ratios that compare the Voice of the Process with the Voice of the Customer or they can be simply expressed as the percent of the product that is exceeding specification limits.1

Fifth Principle: A measurable process characteristic is considered capable if one-  hundred percent of the data values fall within the specification limits.1

Sixth Principle: A simple estimate of the fraction of nonconforming product for a stable process can be obtained from a histogram of the measurements by dividing the number of nonconforming measurements by the total number of measurements in the histogram. 1  

Key Conceptual Patterns

CUSTOMER

A customer is current or potential buyer or user or of goods or services in a particular way from an individual or organization. A customer is a business organization that has authority to consume or employs a good or service that is founded to produce articles of commerce. A customer is a number of persons united or incorporated for joint action and a specific purpose to obtain a benefit or to solve a problem that may not be the actual purchaser of items that are used for later consumption. (Pattern Engine – Customer N=12 © 2014)

SPECIFICATION

A detailed description of design criteria providing an exact measurement or detailed plan needed to make, build, or produce something. It is a detailed written statement regarding a standard point of reference. A specification represents something in words regarding certain or salient aspects, characteristics, or features of a subject matter or something seen, heard, or otherwise experienced or known. It is used in making a decision or judgment against which others can be evaluated against and intended future course of action aimed at a method for achieving specific objectives within a timeframe.(Pattern Engine – Specification N=12 © 2014)

Next Post: Algorithms: Effective and efficient use of metrics and indicators.

1 Donald Wheeler, Advanced Topics in Statistical Process Control, 1995

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Chapter Ten: Thinking – Creating Meaning and Finding Patterns

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS… thinking that creates meaningful patterns.

Why think with the objective of forming a pattern and utilize data, facts and experiences to make inferences and judgments based on concepts and theories to answer a question or solve a problem?

 

Conceptual Pattern for Thinking

Thinking is the process of using the mind to reason rationally. Thinking is a sequenced process using logic to draw conclusions based on a premise or known facts that generate thoughts, feelings, ideas, and perceptions. Thinking stores knowledge and memories to promote understanding and offer directions. Thinking generates a result and draws conclusions from interdependent and linked activities that are directed toward a specific action. (Pattern Engine – Thinking N=12 © 2013)

If Thinking is understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle:  The purpose of thinking is to collect information and to make the best use of it.[1]

Second Principle: Because of the way the mind works to create fixed concept patterns we cannot make the best use of new information unless we have some means of restructuring the old patterns and bring them up-to-date.[2]

Third Principle:  We think for a purpose, within a point-of-view, based on assumptions, leading to implications and consequences.[3]

Fourth Principle: Whenever we think; we use data, facts and experiences to make inferences and judgments based on concepts and theories to answer a question or solve a problem.[4]

Fifth Principle: Intellectual standards that must be considered for thinking are: clarity, relevance, logicalness, accuracy, depth, significance, precision, breadth, and fairness.[5]

Sixth Principle: The key to thinking creatively and intelligently is to connect two or more ideas, relate seemingly different ideas to things, explore the commonalities, subject the ideas, things and connections to analysis, discover or invent something new based the analysis, connections  and explorations, apply the discovery or invention to new contexts.[6]

Key Concept Patterns

INFORMATION

Information is a collection facts and data acquired through study, experience and instruction that culminates with knowledge. It is accumulated knowledge that results in awareness and possession of verified data. Information results from active involvement in an activity from learning and instruction or exposure to events or people over a period of time. Information leads to an increase in knowledge or skill that germinates from a combination of data, facts, ideas, truths, principles, experience and individual interpretation that can be shown to be true, to exist, or to have happened. (Pattern Engine, – Information N=12 © 2013)

PATTERN

A pattern is a general concept formed by extracting common features from specific examples. Patterns are distinct and unifying ideas that are simplified versions of something complex. They are used in analyzing and solving problems, making predictions or making a comparison that is perceived as an entity. A pattern is a recurrent idea expanded in a discourse due to a special set of circumstances. They are considered as a whole, belong together, referred to by name and serve as a master from which other similar things can be made, copied, or used as the basis for a related idea, process, or system. (Pattern Engine, – Pattern N=12 © 2013)

THE FOLLOWING CONCEPTS WILL BE EXPANDED TO CONEPTUAL PATTERNS IN THE BOOK.

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[1] Edward de Bono, Lateral Thinking, 1970

[2] Edward de Bono, Lateral Thinking, 1970

[3] Richard W. Paul and Linda Elder,  Critical Thinking, 2002

[4] Richard W. Paul and Linda Elder,  Critical Thinking, 2002

[5] Richard W. Paul and Linda Elder,  Critical Thinking, 2002

[6] Todd Siler, Thinking Like a Genius, 1996

Remember – We are building a theory about the meaning of quality

Next Post – Chapter Eleven: Curriculum – Shared Paradigms

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Chapter Twelve: Metrics – The Handle on the Door to World Class Quality

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…a metric for an ideal state

Why learn that the metrics of an ideal state are closely related to variation, targets, performance and control?

 

 

Conceptual Pattern for Metric

A metric is a standard system of related measurement statistics by which efficiency, performance, progress, or quality of a plan, process, or product can be assessed and quantified. A metric is an assigned piece of information based on a system of measurement. Metrics are numerical representations of any measurable characteristic of some subjective aspect (attribute, property) according to a rule or arbitrary scale, e.g. a mean or standard deviation, used to describe a sample or population made meaningful by quantifying into specific units. (Pattern Engine – Metric  N=12 © 2014)

If metrics are understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of a metric is to provide measurements for the management, monitoring and improvement of activities and processes.

Second Principle: A measured value from an activity or process can be considered to be in an ideal state only by satisfying four conditions: inherent stability over time, the process is operated with the goal of consistency and stability, the process average (target) is set at the proper level, the natural process spread must be less than the specified tolerance for the measurement characteristic value.1

Third Principle: A measurement value that is in the ideal state is predictable and is producing one-hundred percent conforming product. 1

Fourth Principle: Conformity will be a consequence of natural process limits which fall within specification limits.1

Fifth Principle: Metrics need to have targets based on research.2

Sixth Principle Multiple metrics can be combined into several overall indices of    performance.2

 Key Conceptual Patterns

IDEAL

An ideal is an example and model of standardized excellence. It is a representative member or example offered as a basis for comparison. An ideal is a typical version of a concept, phenomenon, relationship, structure, system, or an aspect of the real world that deserves to be imitated as a pattern. It is typical by virtue of having features of the thing it represents and is universally or widely accepted, agreed upon, or established means of determining what something should be and is accepted as the norm or by which actual attainments are judged. (Pattern Engine – Ideal N=12 © 2014)

CONFORMITY

Conformity is compliance with a fixed standard, regulation, requirement or practice according to a particular set of rules. Conformity is a prescribed guide establishing a customary way of meeting requirements. Conformity is a confirmed set of accepted standard operations especially those that have been developed through experience and knowledge and authoritative principles resulting in translating ideas into into action and are accepted as true and can be used as a basis for reasoning, conduct or action. (Pattern Engine – Conformity N=12 © 2014)

Nest Post: – Indicators – Harbingers of needed change.

  1. Donald Wheeler, Advanced Topics in Statistical Process Control, 1995
  2. Mark Graham Brown, Keeping Score, 1996
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Chapter Thirteen: Indicators – Harbingers of Needed Change—or Not

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…an indicator of needed change.

Why learn that indicators are simple algorithms that combine and then process metrics that may not be related but when used together provide a switch for needed change.

 

Conceptual Pattern for Indicator

An indicator is a measurable variable and signal for attracting attention to something observed or calculated and shows the presence or state of a condition,  trend, or representation of an associated (but non-measured or non-measurable) factor or quantity. It is a message based on an assumption or provision that is an incitement to action. An indicator encodes an agreed upon message that is understood as the occasion for concerted action. A indicator rests upon the validity or effect for something else to happen and is a statement or declaration setting forth particulars or facts regarding something real or alleged, especially one meant to induce a response and expressed by a term, character, or symbol. (Pattern Engine – Indicator N=12 © 2014)

If indicators are understood then the meaning of quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of an indicator is to provide the basis for change.

Second Principle: The mean, median and mode are indicators of central tendency and must approximate the target for measured process characteristics.

Third Principle: Variance and standard deviation values are indicators of spread or dispersion in data about the central tendency.

Fourth Principle: Standard error is an indicator of the average deviation between a measurement and the average of many repeated measurements of the same thing. 1

Fifth Principle: Test-Retest Error is an indicator of variation that exists in duplicate measurements of any specific indicator. 1

Sixth Principle: The Discrimination Ratio is an indicator that quantifies the relative usefulness of a measurement process for a specific characteristic and may be used to establish priorities with regard to improvement efforts. 1

Key Conceptual Patterns

CHANGE

A change is a process and event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another and by which things become different by varying from a routine or pattern. Change is the occurrence of a difference in a sustained phenomenon. Change is a series of actions directed toward a specific aim intended to achieve a result. that happens due to a special set of circumstances and is particularly significant between two or more things that depart from expectations and vary from a norm or standard. (Pattern Engine – Change N=12 © 2014)     

CHARACTERISTIC

A characteristic is any measurable property or feature that helps to distinguish an item, person, phenomenon, etc., usually divided into three categories: (1) physical, (2) functional, and (3) operational. A characteristic is an abstract measurable construct belonging to an entity a, group or set of things. A characteristic is peculiar to a whole class whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished, set apart from similar items or offered as a special attraction that share common attributes marking divisions or coordination’s in a conceptual scheme. (Pattern Engine – Characteristic N=12 © 2014)

Next Post – Variation – A Blessing or a Curse

1 Donald J. Wheeler and Richard W. Lyday, EMP, Evaluating the Measurement Process, 1989

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Chapter Sixteen: Control – Essential for Making Informed Decisions

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…control of variation over time.

Why are data from any measurable characteristic that fail to demonstrate control, not operating predictably and, therefore, contribute to decisions that are economically and strategically suspect?

 

Conceptual Pattern for Control

CONTROL

Control is the ability to purposefully direct, or suppress, change through regulation or maintain a function or action to keep something at the correct level. The act of control brings something to uniformity by bringing to a position of stability on a scale of intensity as a variance from a routine or pattern. Control establishes a state of being governed by official rules in a range of relative scales or values when they can be counted or measured that makes something different when something passes from one state or phase to another. (Pattern Engine – Control N=12 © 2014)

If control is understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of control is to assure the predictability and usefulness of data streams.

Second Principle: A phenomenon will be said to be controlled when, through past experience, we can predict, at least within limits, how the phenomenon may be expected to vary in the future.1

Third Principle: A process will be said to be predictable when, through the use of past experience, we can describe, at least within limits how the process will behave in the future.1

Fourth Principle: Control is characterized by a stable and consistent pattern of variation overtime.2

Fifth Principle:  Samples drawn from an out of control process are economically   and strategically suspect.

Sixth Principle: Statistical Process Control is a way of thinking with some tools attached. 2

Key Conceptual Patterns

STABILITY

Stability is resistance to a changed position or variation resulting in a condition of being in equilibrium. Stability occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another and by which things become different by varying from a routine or pattern and are not be affected by a particular treatment.  Stability tends to retard or oppose change leading to all acting forces balancing each other out. (Pattern Engine – Stability N=12 © 2014)

PATTERN

A pattern is a general concept formed by extracting common features from specific examples. Patterns are distinct and unifying ideas that are simplified versions of something complex. They are used in analyzing and solving problems, making predictions or making a comparison that is perceived as an entity. A pattern is a recurrent idea expanded in a discourse due to a special set of circumstances. They are considered as a whole, belong together, referred to by name and serve as a master from which other similar things can be made, copied, or used as the basis for a related idea, process, or system. (Pattern Engine – Pattern N=12 © 2013)

1 Walter Shewhart, Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, 1931.

2  Donald J. Wheeler, Understanding Variation – The Key to Managing Chaos, 2000.

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Chapter Seventeen: Targets – Centered Variation that Meets Customer Expectations

ConPriDigm AvatarQuality IS…a target of centralized variation.

Why are process targets typically unrealistic when the process is not naturally centered and variation is not predictable within limits?

 

 

Conceptual Pattern for Target

A target is an attainable reference point toward which effort and action is directed. It is an orienting indicator that achieves a state by a series of actions. A target is a desirable achievement providing information for comparing measurements and advancing a principle involving earnest and conscientious activity intended to achieve a purpose. (Pattern Engine – Target N=12 © 2014)

If targets are understood then the meaning of Quality will follow.

First Principle: The purpose of a target is to institute a measure of central tendency.

Second Principle: A target communicates the Voice of the Process, Voice of the Customer and the Voice of the Raw Materials.

Third Principle: Without an estimate of conformance, a process target cannot be effective.

Fourth Principle: A target cannot be determined without knowing the variation that is present at the process level, the customer level and the raw material level.

Fifth Principle: Performance assessment of targets must include error present in measurement.

Sixth Principle: A target can’t be arbitrary and must be built on sound research and knowledge.

Key Conceptual Patterns

PERFORMANCE

Performance is accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards while using knowledge, as opposed to just possessing it, in a manner that is efficient and fulfills an intended purpose. It is a psychological result and level of quality resulting in the skillful avoidance of waste. Performance is a result of perception, learning and reasoning that germinates from the combination of data, information, experience, and individual interpretation. It results in awareness or understanding of a circumstance or fact, gained through association. Performance is that which is accepted as the norm or by which actual attainments are judged. Performance is a universally or widely accepted, agreed upon, or established means of determining what something should be as a basis for comparison, a reference point against other things can be evaluated. Performance involves utilizing the minimum use of resources, time, and effort while achieving a desired result. (Pattern Engine – Performance N=12 © 2014)

ERROR

Error is inadvertent incorrectness that varies between the true value of a mathematical quantity and a calculated or measured value or deviates from a model, norm, specification, or standard that is not due to a lack of knowledge. It is a nonconforming and inevitable change in rate or magnitude. Error is the output or result of a process that deviates from a norm or standard. Error is a change in the observed value from what is usual, accepted, expected or planned. Error affects the values of a data set when compared with a measure of central tendency such as the mean, median, or mode and may impact fact, truth standards or rules. (Pattern Engine – Error N=12 © 2014)

Next Post: Waste- Knowledge Without Know -How

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